The Dissemination of Non-Tariff Measures in ASEAN and Some Implications


  • Mai Thi Thanh Mai VNU University of Economics and Business, Vietnam


By aggregating the calculation of indicators assessing the popularity of non-tariff measures including coverage ratio, frequency index and prevalence score, combined with the tallying method of the number of non-tariff measures applied by ASEAN member states collected from sources such as TRAINS – UNCTAD, WITS – World Bank, this study has assessed the dissemination of the application of ASEAN’s non-tariff measures in the period from 2015 to 2022. The results have shown that the non-tariff measures applied by ASEAN nations tend to increase exponentially. SPS and TBT are the two types of non-tariff measures recorded as the most applicable at ASEAN. The agricultural products sector is being affected by non-tariff measures much more than those in the industrial or mineral sectors. The dense application of non-tariff measures is one of the main reasons why intra-regional trade has not flourished. Non-tariff measures have become the biggest challenge for domestic and foreign enterprises to penetrate into ASEAN markets. Therefore, the study provides some implications to reduce non-tariff barriers, and solutions to help governments and businesses in ASEAN overcome these obstacles.


ASEAN Secretariat (2021). Non-Tariff Measures Cost-Effective Toolkit, Handbook for ASEAN, adapted from UNCTAD's 'Non-Tariff Measures Cost-Effective Toolkit', Jakarta, 9/2021, ISBN 978-623-6945-51-3 (EPUB).

Asian Trade Centre (2019). Non-tariff barriers (NTBs) in ASEAN and the removal of non-tariff measures from a business perspective. <> Accessed 20.6.2023.

Myrna. A. (2013). Non-tariff barriers: A challenge to achieving the ASEAN economic community. The ASEAN Economic Community: A Work in Progress.

Baldwin, R. (1970). Nontariff Distortions of International Trade. Brookings Institution Press.

Beghin, J., Disdier, A. C., Marette, S., & Van Tongeren, F. (2012). Welfare costs and benefits of non-tariff measures in trade: A conceptual framework and application. World Trade Review, 11(3), 356–375.

Cadot, O., & Gourdon, J. (2015). Non-tariff measures, preferential trade agreements, and prices: New evidence. Working Papers 2015-01, CEPII Research Center.

Cadot, O., Gourdon, J., & Van Tongeren, F. (2018). Estimating Ad Valorem Equivalents of Non- Tariff Measures: Combining Price-Based and Quantity-Based Approaches. OECD Trade Policy Papers No. 215.

Deardorff, A. V., & Stern, R. M. (1997). Measurement of non-tariff barriers. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 179, OECD Publishing.

Doan, T., & S. Buban (2019). Managing Non-tariff Measures in ASEAN. In Intal, P. & Pangestu, M. Integrated and Connected Seamless ASEAN Economic Community. Jakarta, ERIA.

Ederington, J., & Ruta, M. (2016). Nontariff Measures and the World Trading System. May, 211–277.

EU-ASEAN Business Council (2019). Trade facilitation and its role in growing economies and helping SMEs: Whither ASEAN? <> Accessed 20.6.2023.

Gourdon J. (2014). CEPII NTM-MAP: A tool for assessing the economic impact of non-tariff measures. Working Papers 2014-24. CEPII Research Center.

Henson, S. & Loader, R. (2001). Barriers to agricultural exports from developing countries: The role of sanitary and phytosanitary requirements. World Development, 29(1), 85-102.

Ing, L. Y., Cadot, O., Anandhika R., & Urata S. (2016). Non-tariff measures in ASEAN: A simple proposal. FERDI Working Paper Development Policies (183).

Grubler, J., & Reiter, O. (2021). Characterising non-tariff trade policy. Economic Analysis and Policy 71, 138-163.

de Melo, J., & Nicita, A. (2018). Non-tariff measures: Data and quantitative tools of analysis. <> Accessed 20.6.2023.

OECD (2018). The intangible impact of non-tariff measures: Insights from the New World Bank Database.

Otsuki T., Wilson J. S., & Sawadeh, M. (2001). Saving two in a billion: Quantifying the trade effect of European food safety standards on African exports. Food Policy, 26(5), 495-514.

Ramon, L. C., & Patalinghug, E. (2016). Non-tariff measures affecting small and medium enterprises in the Asia-Pacific region. APEC project: SME 03 2014.

UNCTAD (2019). International Classification of Non-Tariff Measures 2019. UN.

UNCTAD (2021). COVID-19 non-tariff measures: The good and the bad, through a sustainable development lens. UNCTAD Research Paper No. 60 UNCTAD/SER.RP/2021/3

UNCTAD (2022). Non-tariff measures from A to Z. <> Accessed 20.6.2023.

Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry (2021). Why ASEAN needs to cut non-tariff measures on imported food agricultural products. <> Accessed 20.6.2023. Accessed 20.6.2023. Accessed 20.6.2023. measures-data. Accessed 20.6.2023.


Download data is not yet available.




Abstract View


PDF Downloaded


How to Cite

Mai, M. T. T. . (2023). The Dissemination of Non-Tariff Measures in ASEAN and Some Implications. VNU University of Economics and Business, 3(4), 54.



Original Articles