Evaluating the Impact of EU Non-Tariff Measures on Vietnam’s Textile Exports


  • Nguyen Phuong Dung
  • Ha Van Hoi VNU University of Economics and Business, Vietnam
DOI: https://doi.org/10.57110/vnujeb.v3i6.231


Non-tariff measures (NTMs), European Union–Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (EVFTA), textile exportation, gravity model


With the development process and international economic integration, the importance of non-tariff measures (NTMs) was stimulated significantly in international trade. This shift has played a vital role in placing NTMs in the limelight of Vietnam’s exportation, particularly textile exports. The gravity model has been applied in this article to analyze the current regulations related to NTMs and to assess the impact of NTMs from the EU on textile exported products from Vietnam. The research findings have shown that technical barriers (TBTs) to trade are the most common and stringent regulations from the EU towards Vietnam’s textile exportation, while, sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPSs) are not statistically significant. There are other types of NTMs (apart from SPSs and TBTs) that can increase export turnover. Based on these findings, the paper proposes some recommendations to enhance the exportation of textiles for the Vietnamese government and firms in the upcoming period.


Anderson, J. E. & van Wincoop, E. (2003). Gravity with gravitas: A solution to the border puzzle. American Economic Review, 93, 170-92.

Anderson, J. E. & van Wincoop, E. (2004). Trade costs. Journal of Economic Literature, 42, 691-751.

Dang et al. (2021). An empirical study of the technical trade barriers and free trade agreements on Vietnam’s apparel export value and export efficiency. Journal of Economic Studies, 9(3), 23-35.

Government News (2023). Enterprises should utilize opportunities from Free Trade Agreements. <https://thanglong.chinhphu.vn/doanh-nghiep-can-tan-dung-co-hoi-tu-cac-hiep-dinh-thuong-mai-tu-do-103230206085909537.htm> Accessed 09.9.2023.

National Assembly of Vietnam (2017). Law on Foreign Trade Management No. 05/2017/QH14, dated 12.6.2017.

Le, T. V. N., et al. (2023). Assessing the impacts of non-tariff measures on the export of Vietnam’s main agricultural and seafood products. International Journal of Innovative Research and Scientific Studies, 6(1), 72-79. https://doi.org/10.53894/ijirss.v6i1.1090

Marcus, M. G. T. (2014). Non-tariff barriers, trade integration and the gravity model. Master thesis for the Programme Economic Theory and Economentrics Department of Economics, University of Oslo in collaboration with the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs.

Nicita, A. & Seiermann, J. (2016). G20 policies and export performance of least developed countries. Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Research Study Series No. 75. United Nations publication.

Nguyen, T. H. B. (2022). Identifying Non-tariff measures to export products to the EU market, and recommendations for Vietnamese domestic firms. Vietnam Trade and Industry Review, No. 14, June, 2022.

Pham, H. Q & Nguyen, T. H (2022), Impacts of non-tariff measures on fishery exports of Vietnam. Journal of International Economics and Management, No. 153.

Tinbergen, J. (1962). Shaping the World Economy: Suggestions for an International Economic Policy. Twentieth Century Fund, New York.

UNCTAD (2019). International Classification of Non-Tariff Measures - 2019 version.

UNCTAD (2022). World Tariff Profiles 2022.

Vu, T. N. Q & Tran, V. T. (2020). Overcoming the technical barriers to trade (TBT) of the EU market for Vietnam’s textile and garments products. International conference: Promoting Vietnam’s economy and trade in the context of global trade protectionism, 626-638. <https://khoahoc.tmu.edu.vn/tin-tuc/chi-tiet/ky-yeu-hoi-thao-khoa-hoc-quoc-te-phat-trien-kinh-te-va-thuong-mai-viet-nam-trong-boi-canh-bao-ho-thuong-mai-13920> Accessed 10/09/2023.

Vietnam Economic News (2023). Textile firms struggling with orders shortage <https://congthuong.vn/doanh-nghiep-det-may-ung-pho-voi-tinh-trang-thieu-don-hang-270005.html> Accessed 10/09/2023.

Wood, J. et al. (2019). The Impact of TBT and SPS Measures on Japanese and Korean Exports to China. Sustainability, 11(21), 6141. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11216141


Download data is not yet available.




Abstract View


PDF Downloaded


How to Cite

Dung, N. P. ., & Hoi, H. V. (2023). Evaluating the Impact of EU Non-Tariff Measures on Vietnam’s Textile Exports. VNU University of Economics and Business, 3(6), 68. https://doi.org/10.57110/vnujeb.v3i6.231



Original Articles